The Mafia (it. maf (f) ja, an armour. maffia) - (on one of versions) this secret criminal community which has appeared to Sicily in the end of IXX century. In a broad sense a mafia – the international, secret criminal organization, engaged illegal activity and operating methods of blackmail, violence, murders, etc.
- Rigid hierarchy;
- Use of force for maintenance of internal discipline and for struggle against a competition;
- Own system of values and norms;
- Communication with political and administrative corruption;
- Use of legal political and administrative establishments for covering and maintenance of illegal activity.
In narrow sense - the name of the ethnic criminal community uniting mainly natives of southern Italy.
Initially, the mafia has arisen for the organization of self-defense of the population on island Sicily (Italy). In XX century the mafia has established the control over criminal business (contraband, narkobiznesom, prostitution and t. Item), began to cooperate with political structures of a society in Italy, and then and in other countries. Distinctive feature of a mafia is its communication with vestiges rodoplemennyh the customs giving to a mafia special stability and internal unity. Now the term "¦r¶sh " it is used and as a synonym of the organized crime.
According to historian Paolo Passino - "¦r¶sh - the organized criminal community which carries out functions of the sovereignty on certain =hEEsh=yuEshsh".
Many researchers saw a mafia as a number of the attributes introduced in popular culture, as "eyayueyus eѕEhe=tyutresh ". The Sicilian ethnographer, Juseppe Pitre in the end of 19-th century has told about a mafia the following - "¦r¶sh - consciousness of own value, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the unique arbitrator of each conflict, each collision of interests or shfhsch".
Siciliicy did not see in these people of criminals, on the contrary the Mafiosi - samples for imitation and unique defenders, under condition of when the state does not provide with protection of the citizens. Quite often the mafia was the unique alternative government. Funeral epitafiya legendary boss Villalbo, Kologero Vizzini, has declared already in 1950, that "huyu the mafia was not prestupna, supported respect of the law, protection of the rights, greatness §rEr'=hEr". In this case under a word "'r¶sh " something was meant as pride, honour, or even the social responsibility. Similarly, in 1925, former Italian Prime minister Vittorio Emanuele of Orlando has declared in the senate, that it was proud of that it present "¦r¶shyuchyu", because a word "¦r¶shyuchyu" meant noble, generous.
the Following version of history of a mafiaEdit
The History of a mafia begins with Sicily where in IX-X centuries the mafia has arisen as a voluntary home guard for protection of the Sicilian fishermen and farmers from attacks of the Arabian pirates. After threat has disappeared, the Mafiosi began to live blackmail and extortion. At the weak government gangster clans have got into all spheres of a life of people of Italy. In the future the mafia will supervise contraband of drugs, show business, prostitution. Bosses of a mafia will have close communications with police, judicial officials and influential political circles on all country. The mafia to extend abroad.
Clovo "¦r¶sh " is an abbreviation of the slogan of revolt siciliicev against the French feudal lords - "Morte Alla Francia, Italia Anela" (Death of France, sigh, Italy).
The mafia is obliged by the unusual survivability to the law of silence "yu'hE=h". Nobody dared to testify against gangsters because it threatened with immediate death not only blabed out, but also its all family. The law of blood feud "thefh==r" became the mortgage of prosperity of a clan.
For the informationEdit
Now in territory of the CIS are about two thousand thieves in the law, 300 from which sit in prison. Ideological zakonnikov which chtut all traditions of a thieves' award, almost does not remain.
Mafia bosses agree with pleasure on a screen version of own life. Many directors and actors in the past were members of criminal groupings.
Branches in structure of a mafia have appeared right after the beginnings of the Italian emigration. In Northern America, as well as in many other things parts of the world the term the mafia often associates with any organized crime, and not just traditional Sicilian.
Sicilian Cosa nostraEdit
Main article: Sicilian Mafia
Sicilian Cosa nostra - free confederation approximately hundred families of a mafia, each of which demands the sovereignty on territory, usually city or village or vicinities of greater city, though without ever completely violence aggressive and legalizing its monopoly.
American Cosa nostraEdit
Main article: American Mafia
The oldest, largest and organized Italian criminal group in territory of the USA is Cosa nostra (our business). It has arisen after acceptance of the dry law in the end of 20th years XX of a century.
Cosa nostra totals about thirty families. About five thousand person. And influential families in New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Rhode Island and Chicago are considered as the strongest.