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The Latin American and African mafia. Even more unique in structural construction are the Colombian cartels. Among other famous transnational criminal organizations, the Colombian families are most vysokoorganizovannymi corporations for employment by criminal business which is based on such effective principles of management as specialization and a division of labour. Traditionally Colombian cartels represented known trading dynasties , the majority from which had the patriarchal authoritative structure demanding absolute discipline and fidelity.!>



Now the Colombian cartels are the basic manufacturers and suppliers of cocaine on the world market of drugs. Up to 80 % of the cocaine made in the world, the raw material for which grows only in three countries Juzhnoamerikanskih: Bolivias, Peru (70 %) and Colombia (30 %), extends two famous narcotic cartels located in the Colombian cities of Medellins and Cali. Medel'inskii and kaliiskii cartels predominate over the world market of drugs, making on 715 tons of cocaine a year. As in any big corporation, leaders, for example, Kaliiskogo cartel are reputed as conservative managers. At the main office there is an executive director and a number of vice-presidents for performance of concrete functions: realizations of production, the organization of its transportation, sale, financial activity and power covering. Foreign branches are created for importation, sale and distribution of production. Orders from the main office are obligatory for foreign branches, and the control over them from corporation is carried out round the clock. Thus, the basic supervising levels in the Colombian cartels, undoubtedly, are structured with use of the vertical corporate principles inherent in any legal or illegal bureaucratic organization. Meanwhile absolutely under other scheme the bottom levels of these criminal corporations are constructed. Here the highly specialized cellular structure with careful division between cells of functions and gathering only that information which is really necessary for cartel is used.


Each cell is headed "caleno" and consists of relatives and neighbours. The wages to members of a cell act on the bills controllable by corporation and if they suppose though the slightest mistake, bills debituyutsya. The code of behaviour for members is is rigid-power. The system does not allow to be mistaken, and never gives the members of the second chance. If the mistake is those, that entails a fatal verdict, he is applied not only to the guilty member of a cell, but also to all to its family. Besides relatives are used as hostages during realization of operations with drugs. They serve as the insurance of safety of activity of a cell on a case of unforeseen events or arrest of participants of operation. Such modular approach allows to limit damage which can be put by law enforcement bodies. Difficulties of revealing of such cells and influences on their activity of the state are caused by that membership in these cells is sharply limited only by those people whom personally knows "kolenos". Thus, the bottom parts of the Colombian criminal corporations represent an extensive network of the cells isolated from each other which is being under the rigid control and a management from above. Safety of corporation and precise performance of the ordered functions it is provided by the internal mutual control, based on fear for the life and a life of the families, and also rigid restriction of the information both on activity of the organization, and about its members.. Such combination of strongly pronounced corporate and network principles of the organization is inherent in traditional Colombian cartels. Reception of superprofits as a result of realization only one of kinds of criminal activity confirms its efficiency.


At the same time, rigid struggle of the state against a drug mafia, which edge it has been directed on the described largest criminal corporations, has a little weakened their positions owing to arrests of the majority of leaders. Since 1995 on traditionally Colombian kokainovom the market there are two new cartels " Cartel de la Costa " and " Norten Valle del Cauca ". The last at the organization of the structure have preferred to not use rigidly centralized system leaning a wide network of local parts which, in particular, and suffered that arrest of leaders broke systematic job of all corporation. These cartels do the rate on the mobile, small, highly aggressive groups which are not having high organization and rigidly uncontrollable, unlike traditional cartels. Thus, the analysis of structure of construction of the modern largest criminal transnational organizations of the world allows to draw a conclusion on use of a combination of the certain principles of the organization of own structural elements by them. In struggle against competitors and law enforcement bodies, in a pursuit of superprofits survive only those criminal organizations which have the complex combined structure which model represents original "umbrella" where on a rigid core of corporate management the network of separate independent executive parts is flexibly fixed. In such model it is easy to replace new each failed part, it is easy to operate all parts, and also to provide safety of all system, using amorphous character of local parts and carefully hiding a core of the organization which can it is if necessary fast "will develop", having disappeared for numerous " folds of a umbrella ". The space which is under the canopy of such "umbrella", can make territories of the several countries or polmira, depending on the size, fields of activity and vliyatel'nosti in the world markets of the given transnational criminal organization.


Not having deep historical roots, the modern national criminal organizations getting transnational character of activity, are compelled to improve the structure for own safety and mobility in management of the branches which are being outside of limits of territories of a country of origin, or the country of the basic basing, the most safe for all organization as a whole. Therefore the structure of such organizations is constantly modernized, that helps them to adapt to changing external conditions easily and quickly. As a rule, the criminal organizations developing transnational activity to not suppose of already known mistakes, consider experience of traditional criminal syndicates existing in this sphere, constantly improving it. As a result the structure of their organization and management becomes more complex, iterative and multilevel. It allows if necessary or to turn off the activity till the minimal sizes at significant counteraction of law enforcement bodies or competitors, or to move it with the subsequent wide circulation to the countries from optimum activity for a corresponding kind a legislative and economic situation. The basic model of the modern transnational criminal organization more and more becomes complicated. Occurrence of intermediate levels of management allows a supervising kernel to be engaged only in strategy of development of the organization. It relieves them of necessity of the organization of direct criminal activity, so and from the social control. Saving thus rigidly structured corporate control centre, the given model allows to get rid of lacks of bureaucratic structure, organically combining it with flexible network, amorphous model of the organization at levels of realization of criminal activity.

The nigerian criminal organizations are based on sorts or tribes which do difficult definition of their structure, but, owing to their distribution and involving to the transnational organized crime, they are inclined to operate with criminal groups with the a staff an apartment in Nigeria, distributing political instability and corruption.
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